Contemporary Islamic political thought experimented with
the caliphate-sultanate system, constitutional monarchy,
republic, Islamic state, Islamic democracy and Islamic radicalism.
This thought tradition refers to a totality of ideas and
practices that, on the one hand, reproduced main concepts
of the classical Islamic political thought with certain adjustments.
On the other hand, these ideas and practices aimed
to integrate western ideas and developments to Islamic cultural
environment. The changes that occur in conceptions
on state, political culture and the relationships between religion
and politics, and ruler and ruled are also parts of this
process. Bringing together the channels of opposition and
criticism, and of adaptation and participation to create applicable
solutions, these ideas and debates signify some of
the sources of the strengths and weaknesses of the Islamic
world in the domain of politics. Taking the Ottoman-Turkish
experience as its focus, this article examines a history of
two centuries for Islamic political thought, political institutions
and political participation.
Keywords: Islamic Political Thought, Constitutional Monarchy,
Caliphate, Justice, consultation, Islamic State, Islamic
Democracy, Islamic Radicalism, Sharia, Return to Resources,
Unionist Policies, Historical Imagination.