How did Kalâm Turn Metaphysical?
Kalâm in early times of Islam developed as interpretation of nass (Quranic verses). In this period the main problems of kalâm are God and his attributes, prophecy, destiny, and the life after death. Both the arguments used in debates on these subjects and the debates against non-Muslims necessitate to speak of existence and all beings. Because of the speaking on all individual beings is impossible, beings were limited in general concepts. Thus, the science of kalâm turned into a metaphysical discipline by the attempt of Mu‘tazilî mutakallimûn towards the end of the second century AH. The main problems of kalâm and order of these problems in the books of kalâm were determined in this period, and continued as determined latter centuries.
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