The Conception and Definition of Virtues: Tashkoprizadas Tables of Virtues
One of the most important steps of moral philosophy in the process of becoming a discipline is to have a terminology of its own. Largely, this process started with Aristotle and continued with its neo-Platonic commentators and this terminology has entered into Islamic world following by the translation of Aristotles Nicomachean and some other Greek works into Arabic. Following al-Kindī and al-Fārābīs initial efforts Ibn Sīnā and Ibn Miskawayh have made a significant contribution to this terminology. These efforts and contributions together with Ghazālīs expansion of the concepts especially on the area of virtues and vices in moral philosophy have brought a wealth to the philosophical ethical thought. The expansion of this conceptual vocabulary have been continued by the works on ethical philosophy during the following centuries albeit partially. One of these later contributors is Tashkoprīzāde, the author of Sharkh al-Akhlāq al-Adudiyyah, who has submitted a number of proposals to the relevant terminology in the area of vices. In this article, we will focus on some of the debates on the problem of vice cases in the literature, while referring to the secondary degree virtues and vices in Tashkoprīzādes Sharkh al-Akhlāq al-Adudiyyah with a schematic comparison of Ibn Sīnā and Ghazālīs conceptual vocabularies.
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