A Surviving Example for the Legacy of Umayyad Court and Zuhri in the History of Tadwin: Nuskhatu Shuayb b. Abu Hamza

Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri’s crucial role in the collection process of hadiths (tadwin) during the first quarter of the first century after Hijra is undeniable. Having close ties with Umayyad rulers, he was the most important figure among many scholars employed by the Umayyad court to collect hadiths throughout the Islamic territory. Due to his efforts, many hadiths survived and found their way to the famous and canonical collections of the third century. With a crucial support from Umayyad rulers, Zuhri employed state scribes and used materials provided by the court to record hadiths. One of these scribes, Shuayb b. Abu Hamza, made a collection of his own out of hadiths that he had heard from Zuhri during tadwin. This personal collection eventually reached Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-Bukhari and their contemporaries in its original written form.

The Question of Academic Originality and Authenticity in Studies on Religion and Women

In this article, studies on religion and women are discussed in the context of their academic originality and authenticity. The question of women in Turkey is usually taken as a problem area that is negotiated within a feminist framework. Improving the status of women has been an important issue in the Turkish modernization process. Particularly academic studies appear to be influenced by feminist theories, which have significantly guiding features. An approach called Islamic feminism, which draws attention to Islamic sensitivities, tries to explain women’s place in the religion and tradition from an Islamic point of view without disregarding the critiques advanced by feminist theories. This study aims to discuss these explanations in the context of their originality and authenticity.

Cahit Zarifoğlu’s Poetics: From “Image” to “Meaning”

Since the 1960’s, “image” has been one of the most prominent issues in Turkish Poetry. Defenders of the modernist poetry, such as the representatives of the İkinci Yeni (Second New), frequently used “image” as a poetic term, claiming that the poetic language is different from the everyday language. Those who oppose to such a distinct, autonomous poetic language, on the other hand, argue that poems written within this view are “meaningless”. Cahit Zarifoğlu, who had started writing poems in the 1960’s, also had to deal with the concepts of “image” and “meaning”. His poetry can be analyzed within two periods: From the mid-1960’s to the late 1970’s, he defended an autonomous, poetic language and image. However, starting from the late 1970’s, Zarifoğlu abandoned this approach, which was related to esthetical autonomy; and subsequently he adopted an understanding of a poetry with political references. Though he claimed that his understanding of poetry had not changed since the beginning, he had to work out his way through the difficulties in writing poetry which is both autonomous and political. This radical change that Zarifoğlu’s poetry experienced is also open to consideration in terms of Harold Bloom’s concept of the “anxiety of influence” within the context of the poet’s relationship with the İkinci Yeni.

Relance or the Torn in Poetic Solemnity: An Assesment on the Poem “Berdücesi-1962” through the Concept of Secular Poetry

In this paper, I try to examine Cahit Zarifoğlu’s poem, titled “Berdücesi-1962,” in terms of the context in which it was written and its poetical reflex as well as the entire text, through the concept of “secular poetry.” I first embark on a subjective consideration of poetry in light of Harold Boolum’s concept of “misreading”; I then try to understand the poem “Berdücesi-1962” by comparing it with the subjects of Sezai Karakoç’s “Mona Rosa” and with the auro created by Cemal Süreya’s “Üvercinka” in a ‘one-sided’ manner –without going into details of the latter poems at the level of lines. I argue that Zarifoğlu’s poetical reflex and the way he constructs lines have an affinity with the Second New poetry, and that his articulation is quite close to these poets’ view of poetry. I will also try to explain, through the metaphor of ‘torn’, how the tension or even contrast between Zarifoğlu’s poetical affinity with the Second New and his political stance transformed into an “experience of self-creation” thereby turning into a victorious demeanor in the poetical solemnity of the 1960’s. This way I will demonstrate how he constructed a parallel poetical universe by integrating his stance between an Islamic political identity and a modernist poetic identity into the poetry of the Second New. Secondly, I will try to explain Zarifoğlu’s political and poetical concerns through the argument on “poetical ransom” by discussing why his political interest in the two important names, to whom he thought he was indebted poetically and intellectually, Necip Fazıl Kısakürek and Sezai Karakoç, did not turn into a poetical interest, and how he paid this ransom poetically in the eyes of the reader. Finally, I will argue that the dominant intellectual universe in the Turkish poetry (as well as the Turkish literature in general) was built upon the morality of the Secular Poetry until the 1970’s, and thus Zarifoğlu’s (and Sezai Karakoç’s) early poems were also related to the Secular Poetry.

Judgement and Objectivity in Kant’s Theoretical and Practical Philosophy

This article aims to explain the judgement and the foundations of its objectivity with reference to Kant’s both theoretical philosophy, which focuses on theoretical reason and his practical philosophy that focuses on practical reason. Becuase adjudication is related to knowing and the objectivity of judgment is related to the objectivity of knowledge in his theoretical philosophy, we will try to explain what theoretical judgment is and how its objectivity can be maintained in terms of the conditions and limits of the human being’s ability to know. In the practical philosophy of Kant, because adjudication is related to the actor’s will that is associated with decision-making, and the objectivity of judgment is related to the context of determining of the will, we will examine what practical judgment is and how its objectivity can be maintained by analyzing that what kinds of relations the will enter into for decision-making.

Sa‘daddin al-Taftazânî’s Tahzib al-Mantiq: Introduction, Critical Edition, Translation

Summaries of works have been significant in almost every discipline throughout the history of Islamic thought and education. Sa‘daddin al-Taftazânî’s work, titled Tahzib al-Mantiq wa al-kalâm, is a representative of this genre, and an important text on which many commentaries have been written -particularly on its section on Logic- throughout history. Written in 789 (H), the book’s section on Logic consists of an introduction, thirteen chapters, and a conclusion. The work’s general features are similar to those of the other brief works on Logic. The present artice aims to critically analyze and translate the Logic section of this work, and consists of two sections. The first section introduces the work’s Logic section and the commentaries on it. It also discusses its copies that are consulted in its analysis as well as the method and conceptual preferences applied in this analysis. The bulk of the study entails the analysis and translation of Tahzib al-Mantiq wa al-kalâm.

Mehmet Zahit TİRYAKİ
Turkish Nation-Building and the “Arab Treason” in the Context of Textbooks in the Early-Republican Period

It is today well-known in the academic literature that Sharif Hussein’s Revolt, which broke out in June 1916 in Mecca, was not a movement emerged by the participation of the majority of the Arabs with a nationalist aspiration. However, during the nation-building process in Turkey, which began with the abolition of the Caliphate, it was reflected by the Republican elites as a treasonous uprising undertaken by all Arabs to “stab” the Ottoman Caliph, in order to construct the Arab image as the Turk’s ‘other’. Taking this image into consideration, this study aims at an analysis of the representation of Arabs in textbooks in the early-Republican Turkey. In this regard, the study will firstly set out to clarify the nature of the Sharif’s movement questioning the ideological aspect of the revolt as well as its proportion of support among the urban and Bedouin Arabs. This will be followed by an examination of Turkish schoolbooks to see the impact of Sharif Hussein’s Revolt on the Turkish-Nation building process.

M. Talha ÇİÇEK
Nurullah Ardıç: Islam and the Politics of Secularism: The Caliphate and Middle Eastern Modernization in the Early 20th Century

Nurullah Ardıç: Islam and the Politics of Secularism: The Caliphate and Middle Eastern Modernization in the Early 20th Century

Isa Blumi: Reinstating the Ottomans: Alternative Balkan Modernities, 1800-1912

Isa Blumi: Reinstating the Ottomans: Alternative Balkan Modernities, 1800-1912