Ibn Khaldûn's Muqaddimah as a classical work in economics

Ibn Khaldûn's masterpiece, the Muqaddimah, which invented a methodology not only in economics, but also in social sciences in general, deserves to be evaluated as a "classic work in economics" from many perspectives. It is obvious that the Muqaddimah contains its predecessors through refining them, and is benefited not only by social scientists but also every researches. It affects many areas of research including economics and its effect is universal and beyond the place and time. This article examines Ibn Haldûn's some ideas that prepossess the modern economists such as division of labor and productivity, national political economy, psychology of economy and global political economy.

Mustafa ÖZEL
Why Ibn Khaldûn?

Most of the problems encountered by researchers focusing on Ibn Khaldûn studies originate directly from his Muqaddimah. In the first place, the inconspicuous expressions, obscure terms and complicated compositions within the text confuse the researcher. Moreover, running into many sentences and statements in the Muqaddimah which we had previously assumed to belong to one of the prominent philosophers of the modern age aggravates the problem even worse. At the same time, the researcher himself or his way of treating the Haldunian thought has to be accounted for most of the responsibility concerning these contradictory interpretations. This study, above all, attempts to present the views of Ibn Khaldûn exactly as they are and exactly as he articulates them within a totalistic framework. In the process, it plans to give consideration to his personal endeavors and social experiences all of which we assume to serve as a special source for the emergence and development of the Arabic political and social thought

Muhammed Âbid EL-CÂBİRÎ
Turkish translation of the Muqaddimah in the Ottoman period

Ibn Khaldûn's Muqaddimah has emerged as one of the most frequently read books within the classical and post-classical Ottoman intellectual and political world. His views have attracted many followers among the social and political thinkers. The first five sections of the text have been translated by Şeyhülislam Pîrîzâde Mehmed Sâhib Efendi in the first half of the eighteenth century, while the sixth section has been completed by Ahmed Cevdet Paşa in the nineteenth century. The translators have not only transmitted the text from Arabic into Ottoman Turkish but they have also interpreted the Muqaddimah. This article aims to put forth the contributions of Pîrîzâde and Cevdet Paşa as a means to tap into the intellectual world of the late Ottoman society and thereby, to catch glimpses of the approaches of the Ottoman ulema and administrators to the themes covered in the text.

Search for new polities in Akçura, Gökalp and Mustafa Kemal in the transition from the empire into the nation state

The geographical contractions and land losses of the Ottoman Empire against the nationalisms of the nineteenth century transformed the structure of the political power and at the same time constituted a legitimate reason for the new political pursuits and intellectual inclinations. All these painful and severe experiences had a powerful impact over the identity politics of Turkey. At the end of this process, nationalism emerged as the identity desired and accepted by the political actors. Nationalism is also the most important theme of political westernization in Turkey. While it constituted a vague and imaginary idea in the writings of Akçura in 1904, nationalism evolved into a more distinct formulation and a possible ideology in the writings of Gökalp in 1913. Together with the declaration of the Republic in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal, it exhibited the first signs of becoming the real policy of the new nation state. This article tries to tackle the evident impact of nationalism in the transition from the empire into the nation state in the midst of shrinking borders, narrowing horizons and consumed identities in the light of Yusuf Akçura's "Üç Tarz-ı Siyaset," Ziya Gökalp's "Üç Cereyan," and Mustafa Kemal's "Milli Siyaset."

Sacred media, sacred age: A contribution to understanding McLuhan's thought

This study aims to discuss the ways in which the Catholic identity, embraced by the mass communications philosopher, Herbert Marshall McLuhan, has been reflected in his world of thought. It also claims that the means to a thorough assessment of his thought runs through understanding his religious motivation and the impact of the Catholic theology on his philosophy. The work comprises of four sections. The first section discusses the general context of the academic interest shown in McLuhan's thought amd his place within the contemporary Turkish thought. The second section deals with the intellectual course of McLuhan following his conversion into Catholiticism and the impact of the Catholic theology over his system of thought. The third section provides an interpretation of McLuhan's analyses on the young population in relation to his Catholic identity. The last part opens the floor to discussion regarding the approaches on the "possibility fields" created by the modern communication technologies once again in the context of his Catholic expectations and anxieties.

Fahrettin ALTUN
Şerif Mardin bibliography (1950-2007)

This work has attempted at a chronological/bibliographical classification of all publications and academic works of Prof. Dr. Şerif Mardin from 1950 to 2007. Consisting of five headings, the study first presents a list of the academic institutions and universities to which he has been connected. Then Mardin's political life, his activities at associations and his awards have been recorded in chronological order to the extent that they have been possible to identify. Thirdly, all of his woks have been placed in chronological order. This is followed by the record of his two translations from Turkish into English and from English into Turkish. Last, an inventory of the articles, books and theses in English and Turkish conducted on the works of Şerif Mardin has been submitted.

Islamic aesthetics reconsidered: On Islamic Aesthetics: An Introduction by Oliver Leaman

In his Islamic Aesthetics (2004), Oliver Leaman, a well-known scholar in the philosophy of art and researcher on the connections between art and religion, discusses the issue of Islamic art in a problematic way and from the perspective of philosophical aesthetics in contrary to the former descriptive and explanatory texts written on this issue. Leaman argues the view that the notion of "Islamic art" depends on generalization and is used without any corroboration, and what is more, most of the judgments taken place in the literature concerning the Islamic art are definitely unjustified. According to Leaman, in order to understand the Islamic art profoundly, one definitely must devote a great deal of effort and do an excellent research, which depends on particular instances, rather than being contented with hackneyed statements. In this paper, I will exhaustively criticize Leaman's book, and additionally, focus on the basic problems of the Islamic art with reference to Leaman's book.


Book Reviews

An experiment of synthesis in between tradition and modernity: Seyyid Süleyman Nedvi (1884-1953)

The Indian Subaltern of the nineteenth century has witnessed the revitalization of the traditional currents of Islamic thought as well as modernist perceptions. An effort at synthesis in between these perceptions has surfaced towards the end of the century. The Daru'l-Ulum Nedvetü'l-Ulema of the nineteenth century, inaugurated in 1898, comes first among the institutions of education representing this synthesis between tradition and modernity. While it aims to teach the basic religious sciences without emphasizing the secterian conflicts, to an extent, it also welcomes the modern western sciences. It needs to be stressed here that Nedve has exerted special emphasis on the Arabic language and literature. Seyyid Süleyman Nedvi (1884-1953), one of the first graduates of Daru'l-Ulum Nedvetü'l-Ulema, represents this synthetical identity by means of his education and works. The model of an intellectual as such is well familiar with the basic Islamic sciences as well as being aware of the modern world and the modern sciences. Nedvi is especially prominent for his in-depth analyses in the fields of philology, history and literature and for his critical approach to utilizing the sources. Admired by all individuals from the modernist to the salafî ends, one needs to accept Nedvi as one of the last examples of an intellectual prototype who appears to be both synthetical and deeply immersed in knowledge.